All About Pigmentation
To better understand pigmentation issues, we need to know how these pigments are produced.
Pigments is also known as melanin and is produced by cells called melanocytes that reside at the basement membrane which is just between the superficial skin (epidermis) and the deep skin (dermis).
Melanin is deposited to surrounding skin cells and gives the skin the characteristic darkening. This is more prominent in Asians than Caucasians, who have whiter skin. These pigments - melanin, serve to absorb the UV rays and reduce the oxidative stress damage that UV causes to skin cells. As a result, with more exposure to sunlight, we get a darker skin tone, a term we know as tanning.